Whilst MPs in the UK debated the economic impact of vaccinations, a new study showed that Hib and pneumococcal vaccines have saved 1.45 million lives since 2000, with support from Gavi. Orin Levine explained why we need vaccines to achieve universal health coverage, and Seth Berkley asked: do we keep waiting for the next pandemic, or do we try to prevent it?

Research into a new probiotic cholera vaccine showed it could outrace the infections rapid spread, and a novel ‘plug and play’ viral platform could help develop vaccines against Zika and AIDS. Bill Gates discussed a new ‘MetaFridge’ proven to keep vaccines cold for at least five days.

A study showed that opting out of vaccines has created vulnerable ‘hot spots’ for outbreaks in the US. An outbreak of measles has already killed dozens of children in Romania, with doctors blaming the surge of cases on low vaccination coverage. Meanwhile, a study in Vaccine found that explaining herd immunity can raise willingness to get the flu shot. Finally, after fears of polio re-emergence in Venezuela, investigations showed that the suspected case tested negative for the disease.