A ninth polio case was confirmed in Afghanistan this week as vaccination campaigns also began there and in neighbouring Pakistan, while an outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is threatening global eradication efforts.

Measles was also on the resurgent, as reports showed the disease spreading from Venezuela to Brazil, putting an isolated Amazonian tribe under threat. Similarly, Scientific American examined the Romanian outbreak that has killed dozens of children, and doctors in the UK warned about a surge in cases.

As Nigeria tackled a cholera outbreak with house calls, jingles and health advisories, a WHO bulletin article looked at how the crisis-driven cholera outbreaks have shifted focus back to oral cholera vaccines.

The Norwegian ambassador Kåre R. Aas argued that the public and private sectors must work together to manage the next pandemic. The value of this approach was backed up with promising results after a trial of the first clinical MERS vaccine by Inovio and GeneOne, which secured funding from the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) earlier this year. Elsewhere in research, a new HIV vaccine also showed promise.